What is a fully automatic mechanical watch? What is the principle of a fully automatic mechanical watch?
Fully automatic mechanical watches do not need batteries, because automatic mechanical watches rely on the swing of the arm to automatically wind, so they must be worn for more than eight hours a day to ensure accurate timing.
Structure and composition
The internal movement components of a fully automatic mechanical watch are composed of mechanical parts, and are a balance spring-type watch powered by a mainspring. A mechanical watch is composed of movement and appearance parts. The movement includes a transmission system, a prime mover system, a winding needle system, an escapement speed control system, and a pointer system.Appearance parts are composed of cases, dials, hands, straps and other parts.
There are many structural types of automatic watches, but the working principles are roughly the same. The self-winding device is installed behind the movement and can be seen by opening the back cover. Automatic Swiss watch movements are generally thicker. The automatic watch of the general reversing wheel structure is composed of an automatic hammer (heavy hammer), a reversing wheel, an automatic transmission wheel, an automatic head wheel, etc. The automatic hammer is fixed on the central automatic hammer shaft with screws. Under the action of external force, it rotates around the center to drive the reversing wheel, the shaft teeth of the reversing wheel push the automatic transmission wheel to rotate, the automatic transmission wheel pushes the automatic head wheel, and the automatic head wheel meshes with the teeth of the big steel wheel, so that the big steel wheel is one The teeth turn tooth by tooth and wind up. A fully automatic watch can be wound by rotating the automatic rotor in any direction. Different from one-way reversing devices, two-way reversing devices or ratchet pawl-type devices. Now there are more automatic watches. ETA2892 movement and Shuangshi 46941 movement are two-way automatic winding, most of them use eccentric oscillating weight, which is shaped like a semi-circular disc and is made of heavier metal. It is formed, and the edge is relatively thick, so most of the mass is on the edge of the tuo, which is rotated by the gravity of the earth's center and the swing of the human arm, and drives a set of gears to wind up the mainspring for winding.
How it works
The energy for the watch to run away is provided by the elastic force of the mainspring. When the mainspring is fully wound, its torque is larger. As the watch runs away and the mainspring becomes loose, its torque gradually decreases. From the time the watch is wound up to 24 hours, its torque output is stable, and the travel time is also more accurate at this time, with small errors. After more than 24 hours, the spring torque will drop sharply, and the travel time error will increase. In order to ensure that the watch is more accurate, it is necessary to wind up the clock regularly every day.
It is better to use the fingers to wind the mechanical watch back and forth, because the back and forth winding can play the role of rebound deceleration and prevent the gears from colliding. If the winding is always forward, the closer the spring is to the full, the greater its rebound force will be. Every time the winding is wound, there will be a rebound, and each rebound will increase the collision of the winding gears, making the tips of the teeth easily broken.
According to the calculation of the transmission ratio, the crown rotates more than 18 times, which can satisfy the watch's running time for 36 hours. However, since the winding force of each person is different and the friction of the waterproof rubber ring in the crown is different, it is best to rotate the crown more than 20 times when the mainspring is completely relaxed. All the mainsprings are wound up, which can theoretically last for 40 hours (except for special models), but the accuracy of the watch cannot be guaranteed after 24 hours.
When the balance spring is in a static state, a certain torque is applied to the mainspring, that is, a layer of chord is applied. At this time, the watch is not shaken, and the balance spring can swing automatically, indicating that the watch has high sensitivity. If you need to shake the watch before you can move after winding, it means that the watch has low sensitivity. This phenomenon is generally caused by the excessive position difference of the balance wheel.
Maintenance principles of mechanical watches:
1. During the use of the automatic watch, because its mainspring can often maintain a certain degree of tension, it can still be kept for more than 24 hours when it is removed from the wrist and placed still.
2. After the automatic watch has been used for many years, its flexibility will also be reduced due to the wear and tear of the automatic parts. Therefore, the watch should be swung for a certain period of time before going to bed every night to make up for the lack of power.
3. If the automatic device of the automatic watch fails, the mainspring can also be wound by hand, but it will not be full. It feels more laborious to wind up by hand, because the gears and automatic hammers of the automatic part also rotate with the rotation of the big drum.
Principles of time adjustment for mechanical watches:
If the mechanical watch is not used for a long time, the mainspring of the mechanical watch will relax until the watch is still. At this time, if you want to wear it again, you must first rewind the clockwork as soon as possible, and then calibrate the time later. Generally, mechanical watches At the moment when the mainspring is at its most slack, it will appear that the hour and minute hands slow down or speed up. Because of this, the mainspring should be fully wound first, so that there is no standard power to drive the hands after the time is calibrated, even if it is a semi-automatic winding watch For models, you should also use manual winding to the full eighth point, and then perform time calibration.
The steps of self-cleaning and maintenance of mechanical watch:
(1) Gently wipe with a soft cloth dipped in soapy water;
(2) Wipe with a soft cloth dampened with water;
(3) Wipe with a dry soft cloth;
(4) Dry in the shade in a ventilated place;
(5) Never send ultrasonic cleaning casually.
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